Formation of the lexicon in Spanish

The lexicon of the Spanish language is composed of a series of elements of varied character. It is necessary to point out, first of all, a large number of words that come from Latin, that attached to the pre-Roman, such as wilderness or raft voices, for example, constitute the so-called heritage voices of language.

This set of traditional words we must add loans that have occurred throughout the history of the language, rather than translation agencies and translators must take into account.

For example, it is possible to find words of Germanic origin: search, white, truce, war, rico. There are also abundant Despairs: alfayate, until, ole, I hope. In addition, catalanisms as: nao, seo; Italianisms: beauty, sonnet, novel. Gallicisms: flirtatious, Steed; and from words of American languages: canoe, tomato.

It is interesting to note that there are words that soon incorporated into the lexicon of the language, while other loans appear at a certain time to disappear quickly, as it did with the expression of French origin certes, “really, really”.

The lexicon of a language is not a closed set, but an open inventory where constantly appear new words and others disappear.

In a quick review of the formation of the Hispanic lexicon note that there are times dominated loans of a certain language: Italianisms in the 16th, gallicisms in the 18th.

This abundance of words with a particular source necessarily suggests a historical moment of authentic cultural and political rise of the people in question. If you analyze the amount of new words from foreign languages that have entered the Spanish, will be that a very high percentage in accordance with terms derived from English: parking, living room, hall, which have been incorporated with sports and new aspects of life: the campsite, for example.

In addition to the loans and patrimonial voices, the language has a number of resources to increase its flow lexicon. One of the procedures is starting from the onomatopoeia to create new words: run-run (grunt of satisfaction produced by the cat) may appear to rumrunner and I rumrunner.

In some cases, the notion that a word comes from an onomatopoeia has been lost. Hunt down the driven expression goes back to the time when animals were scared with cries Ox, ox! to the place that was the bet Hunter. This way of hunting was “hunt to the axed”, which, with the phonetic transformation by language, became driven, Word that lost connection with ox!, it was not difficult to join with eye, both by phonetic proximity system used in the hunt.

Other times, the language unites two words to form a single: tiny, corkscrew, goalkeeper; It is a linguistic procedure that goes by the name of composition. The compound words may have the same meaning as the simple changes; the boquirrubio word was first applied to the sparrows had blonde or yellow beaks, which were young, from there went to mean “inexperienced person, little aware of things”, as the birds of low age.

Much more productive than the previous procedures, is the formation of words by morphemes of a certain semantic value, and which are added to existing

The morpheme – has the semantic value of “two, two times”; dis -, – have a negative sense, the suffix -ago indicates the coup with the instrument that serves as a basis for training or simply ” strike ”: smack.

A special type of suffixes, that does not introduce a new significance, they vary the size of the object, the affection or the unpleasantness with which deems the person talking, constitute derogatory and augmentative suffixes diminutives.

Many words used in diminutive do not necessarily have to refer to the size, but it can also refer to the special subjective viewpoint that the speaker gives them.

Just think of the expression in Mexico, “poor; is all pelechadito! “, which is used before a corpse, and that the affection shown by the use of the diminutive form of pilchard (the hair lose an animal), and by extension “die”.

On the other hand, there are some words that originally were diminutives, have lexicalized to become a Word with an independent meaning. For example, Mesilla was originally a small table, but today it is furniture that is placed next to a bed in the bedroom.

Therefore, I can say, without fear to be wrong, that the Spanish (to the same other languages) is a living language that is constantly evolving.